Maps in: Central Asia

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Farming systems

 

Farming systems

This map differentiates 19 farming systems on the basis of the classification developed by Dixon et al (2001, see Data source). It illustrates the diversity of the production systems and their adaptation to highly diverse environments. In a general way, the agricultural systems of these regions can be subdivided into 3 groups: (a) rainfall-based systems; (b) irrigated systems; and (c) intermediate systems. The latter rely on spatially and temporally variable mixes of rain and irrigation water. Although overlap is considerable, these systems occupy specific segments of the aridity spectrum. The irrigated systems constitute the only notable exception, since they occur under all aridity regimes. As aridity increases, the diversity in agricultural systems drops. The systems also occupy an amazing range of thermal climates, ranging from tropical to temperate continental.

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Farming systems

This map differentiates 19 farming systems on the basis of the classification developed by Dixon et al (2001, see Data source). It illustrates the diversity of the production systems and their adaptation to highly diverse environments. In a general way, the agricultural systems of these regions can be subdivided into 3 groups: (a) rainfall-based systems; (b) irrigated systems; and (c) intermediate systems. The latter rely on spatially and temporally variable mixes of rain and irrigation water. Although overlap is considerable, these systems occupy specific segments of the aridity spectrum. The irrigated systems constitute the only notable exception, since they occur under all aridity regimes. As aridity increases, the diversity in agricultural systems drops. The systems also occupy an amazing range of thermal climates, ranging from tropical to temperate continental.

Length of the temperature-limited growing period

 

Length of the temperature-limited growing period

The climatic growing period is calculated by means of a model developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 1978) to estimate the length of growing period under either moisture-limiting or temperature-limiting conditions, or both. Under rainfed conditions, both moisture and temperature can be limited. Under irrigated conditions, only temperature is to be considered a limiting factor.
The temperature-limited growing period is calculated with reference to a temperature threshold, below which there is no growing period, in this case 5°C, as the contiguous period with mean temperature above 5°C.

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Length of the temperature-limited growing period

The climatic growing period is calculated by means of a model developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 1978) to estimate the length of growing period under either moisture-limiting or temperature-limiting conditions, or both. Under rainfed conditions, both moisture and temperature can be limited. Under irrigated conditions, only temperature is to be considered a limiting factor.
The temperature-limited growing period is calculated with reference to a temperature threshold, below which there is no growing period, in this case 5°C, as the contiguous period with mean temperature above 5°C.

Soil salinity

 

Soil salinity

This map shows the distribution of salt-affected soils in the region. Using the Fertility Capability Classification (FCC), these soils are defined (Sanchez et al., 1982) as having ‘> 4 dS/m of electrical conductivity of saturated extract at 25°C within 1 m of the soil surface’.
Within the FAO soil classification system these soils are identified as follows:

  • All soils in the Solonchak soil group
  • Other soils with saline phase
  • Salt Flats

The dataset is not up-to-date in respect of salinity which may have developed in irrigated areas since the early 70s, when most of the surveys used by the data source were completed. On the other hand, reclamation works may have reduced salinity or even sodicity in other areas.

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Soil salinity

This map shows the distribution of salt-affected soils in the region. Using the Fertility Capability Classification (FCC), these soils are defined (Sanchez et al., 1982) as having ‘> 4 dS/m of electrical conductivity of saturated extract at 25°C within 1 m of the soil surface’.
Within the FAO soil classification system these soils are identified as follows:

  • All soils in the Solonchak soil group
  • Other soils with saline phase
  • Salt Flats

The dataset is not up-to-date in respect of salinity which may have developed in irrigated areas since the early 70s, when most of the surveys used by the data source were completed. On the other hand, reclamation works may have reduced salinity or even sodicity in other areas.

Agricultural Resource Capital and Population Density

 

Agricultural Resource Capital and Population Density

A high-potential agricultural resource base can be insufficient for a large rural population, whereas areas with lower potential for agriculture but also lower population densities can be sustainable. This map links agricultural resource poverty to population density.

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Agricultural Resource Capital and Population Density

A high-potential agricultural resource base can be insufficient for a large rural population, whereas areas with lower potential for agriculture but also lower population densities can be sustainable. This map links agricultural resource poverty to population density.

Accessibility  to markets

 

Accessibility to markets

This map shows travel time to cities with at least 50,000 inhabitants as an indicator of accessibility to markets.

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Accessibility to markets

This map shows travel time to cities with at least 50,000 inhabitants as an indicator of accessibility to markets.

Length of the moisture-limited growing period

 

Length of the moisture-limited growing period

The climatic growing period is calculated by means of a model developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 1978) to estimate the length of growing period under either moisture-limiting or temperature-limiting conditions, or both. Under rainfed conditions, both moisture and temperature can be limited. Under irrigated conditions, only temperature is to be considered a limiting factor.
The moisture-limited growing period is calculated, using a waterbalance approach, as the ratio of actual evapotranspiration (AET) to potential evapotranspiration (PET). If this ratio for any particular month is higher than a user-defined threshold (in this study 0.5), that month is part of a growing period. If it is not, that month is not part of the growing period. The start date of the moisture-limited growing period is obtained from linear interpolation of the AET/PET ratios between the last month that is not part of the growing period, and the first month that is part of the growing period. The end date, inversely, is obtained by linear interpolation of the AET/PET ratios between the last month that is part of the growing period, and the first one that is not part of the growing period.

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Length of the moisture-limited growing period

The climatic growing period is calculated by means of a model developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 1978) to estimate the length of growing period under either moisture-limiting or temperature-limiting conditions, or both. Under rainfed conditions, both moisture and temperature can be limited. Under irrigated conditions, only temperature is to be considered a limiting factor.
The moisture-limited growing period is calculated, using a waterbalance approach, as the ratio of actual evapotranspiration (AET) to potential evapotranspiration (PET). If this ratio for any particular month is higher than a user-defined threshold (in this study 0.5), that month is part of a growing period. If it is not, that month is not part of the growing period. The start date of the moisture-limited growing period is obtained from linear interpolation of the AET/PET ratios between the last month that is not part of the growing period, and the first month that is part of the growing period. The end date, inversely, is obtained by linear interpolation of the AET/PET ratios between the last month that is part of the growing period, and the first one that is not part of the growing period.

Relative change in annual trend precipitation 1901-2007

 

Relative change in annual trend precipitation 1901-2007

This map is based on the Full Data Reanalysis Product Version 4 of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). It has been obtained by linear regression fitted to the 107-year time series of annual precipitation of each 0.5x0.5 degree grid cell by the least-squares method and subsequent resampling to 0.008333 degree (about 1 km) spatial resolution. The map shows the average relative change between 2007 and 1901 in percent per decade (10-year period) as measured along the trend line.
In spite of the high year-to-year variability, there is a clear and often highly significant trend, which is mostly negative (0-5% decrease/decade), with a positive increase in parts of Central Asia. Only in some of the extremely dry parts of the region, this simple linear model leads to an obvious overestimation of change (areas mapped as having 15 to over 30% relative change of annual precipitation per decade).

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Relative change in annual trend precipitation 1901-2007

This map is based on the Full Data Reanalysis Product Version 4 of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). It has been obtained by linear regression fitted to the 107-year time series of annual precipitation of each 0.5x0.5 degree grid cell by the least-squares method and subsequent resampling to 0.008333 degree (about 1 km) spatial resolution. The map shows the average relative change between 2007 and 1901 in percent per decade (10-year period) as measured along the trend line.
In spite of the high year-to-year variability, there is a clear and often highly significant trend, which is mostly negative (0-5% decrease/decade), with a positive increase in parts of Central Asia. Only in some of the extremely dry parts of the region, this simple linear model leads to an obvious overestimation of change (areas mapped as having 15 to over 30% relative change of annual precipitation per decade).

Proportion of underweight children(year 2000)

 

Proportion of underweight children(year 2000)

This map shows the percentage of underweight children. As with the map of population density , the uneven pattern of large and small polygons is an artifact due to differences in the size of the statistical units available in different countries and, while offering a reasonable average, does not necessarily allow a point-exact  estimate of this poverty indicator.

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Proportion of underweight children(year 2000)

This map shows the percentage of underweight children. As with the map of population density , the uneven pattern of large and small polygons is an artifact due to differences in the size of the statistical units available in different countries and, while offering a reasonable average, does not necessarily allow a point-exact  estimate of this poverty indicator.

Action and satellite sites of the Central Asia target region

 

Action and satellite sites of the Central Asia target region

Whereas in the WANA region there is sufficient contiguity to spatially define Benchmark Areas, this is not the case in Central Asia, hence an exclusive focus on Action Sites and Satellite Sites. Three Action Sites and a Satellite Site are planned in Central Asia, and one Satellite Site in the Caucasus.
The Aral-Turkestan Lowland Action Site (SRT2-AS1) covers the area around the Aral Sea in Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan and will primarily focus research on land reclamation, effective water management, and soil fertility increase.
The Action Site covering the Rasht Valley in parts of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan (SRT2-AS2) will primarily focus research on soil erosion and landslides control, livestock improvement, and processing and marketing of local products.
In the Ferghana Valley and Southern Kazakhstan (SRT3-AS1) research will focus on Improved water management, and agro-technical measures in crop production, fruits and vegetables, livestock and fodder.
In the Kashkadarya Region Satellite Site (SRT3-SS1) research will be conducted on plant breeding and seed production.
The Satellite Site in the Caucasus (the Kura-Araks Lowland, SRT3-SS2) will focus research on improvement of irrigation schemes and de-salinization of soils.

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Action and satellite sites of the Central Asia target region

Whereas in the WANA region there is sufficient contiguity to spatially define Benchmark Areas, this is not the case in Central Asia, hence an exclusive focus on Action Sites and Satellite Sites. Three Action Sites and a Satellite Site are planned in Central Asia, and one Satellite Site in the Caucasus.
The Aral-Turkestan Lowland Action Site (SRT2-AS1) covers the area around the Aral Sea in Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan and will primarily focus research on land reclamation, effective water management, and soil fertility increase.
The Action Site covering the Rasht Valley in parts of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan (SRT2-AS2) will primarily focus research on soil erosion and landslides control, livestock improvement, and processing and marketing of local products.
In the Ferghana Valley and Southern Kazakhstan (SRT3-AS1) research will focus on Improved water management, and agro-technical measures in crop production, fruits and vegetables, livestock and fodder.
In the Kashkadarya Region Satellite Site (SRT3-SS1) research will be conducted on plant breeding and seed production.
The Satellite Site in the Caucasus (the Kura-Araks Lowland, SRT3-SS2) will focus research on improvement of irrigation schemes and de-salinization of soils.

Irrigated areas

 

Irrigated areas

This map shows the percentage of land that is irrigated. Whereas irrigation is the ultimate solution for agricultural water shortage, this map makes clear that only a small fraction of the drylands is irrigated, although there are major differences between individual countries (-> Statistical Tables).

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Irrigated areas

This map shows the percentage of land that is irrigated. Whereas irrigation is the ultimate solution for agricultural water shortage, this map makes clear that only a small fraction of the drylands is irrigated, although there are major differences between individual countries (-> Statistical Tables).

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